Upper Respiratory Infection

Utilizing PCR technology to diagnose a respiratory infection will differentiate between a bacterial, viral or fungal pathogen as well as provide options on treatment if necessary for the illness. Using this technology can result in faster diagnosis which leads to quicker treatment and better patient outcomes.

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Upper Respiratory Infection Info


Upper respiratory infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young, geriatric and immunocompromised patients
Rapid antigen tests like the flu and Strep tests have created a false sense of security among patients and providers – they lack sensitivity and only focus on a single pathogen diagnosis
Co-infection is HIGH in Respiratory illness
False negatives can lead to a delayed diagnosis and poor clinical outcomes
Upper Respiratory Infection

Viral Pathogens


  • Adenoviruses #1
  • Adenoviruses #2
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV/HHV5)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV/HHV4)
  • Human Bocavirus
  • Human Coronavirus 229E
  • Human Coronavirus HKU1
  • Human Coronavirus NL63
  • Human Coronavirus OC43
  • Human Enteroviruses
  • Human Enterovirus_D68
  • Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)
  • Human Metapneumovirus
  • Human Parainfluenza virus 1
  • Human Parainfluenza virus 2
  • Human Parainfluenza virus 3
  • Human Parainfluenza virus 4
  • Human Parechovirus
  • Human Respiratory syncytial virus A
  • Human Respiratory syncytial virus B
  • Human Rhinoviruses #2
  • Human Rhinoviruses #1
  • Influenza A virus H1-2009
  • Influenza A virus (H1 and H3)
  • Influenza A virus H3
  • Influenza B virus
  • Measles Virus
  • Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)
  • Mumps virus
  • SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19)
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

Bacterial Pathogens


  • Bordetella
  • Bordetella holmesii
  • Bordetella pertussis
  • Chlamydophila Pneumoniae
  • Coxiella Burnetii
  • Haemophilus Influenzae
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Legionella Pneumophila
  • Moraxella Catarrhalis
  • Mycoplasma Pneumoniae
  • Staphylococcus Aureus
  • Streptococcus Pneumoniae
  • Streptococcus pyogenes

Fungal Pathogens


  • Pneumocystis jirovecii

See also

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